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The Aral Sea is only the epicentre of the "tragedy", as Central Asians commonly refer to this legacy of environmental misuse; the damage has also consumed thousands of surrounding square kilometers. Called "the most staggering disaster of the twentieth century" by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Aral Sea basin intersects all five Central Asian republics - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - which lie in a 690,000-square-kilometer landlocked zone.

There are probably moments in everyone’s life when you experience an extraordinary feeling of elation, a particularly high sense of meaning in life, when you feel an integral part of your country and people. I experienced such moments of excitement and joy 25 years ago, on 2 March 1992, the historic day when the Republic of Kazakhstan was admitted as a newly independent State to membership in the United Nations.

What is behind the legacy of China? The country’s emergence from a weak to a strong power has not been an indisputable fact. It is important to understand, however, if this change and the country’s rise was a sudden phenomenon, or if it was based on a deep historical and cultural foundation.

The United Nations Secretariat was first to involve academia in issue articulation programmes, conferences and the drafting of reports dealing with either new global programme areas or with specific policy issues reflecting the changing membership of the United Nations.

Article 99 is more important, in my view, in what it implies and presupposes by specifically encouraging the Secretary-General to use his judgement as to whether a matter should be brought to the attention of the Security Council as it could potentially threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.

What is the role of academia in promoting or hindering aid effectiveness? This article aims to address the crucial role played by academia in the past two decades especially after the Paris, Ghana and Busan high-level meetings on aid effectiveness.

So what does the birth of the United Nations signify? How is the birth of the United Nations itself an ethical matter? To answer that question we must turn to the actual language of the United Nations itself and how it envisions its own ethical framework.

In recent years, many developing countries in Asia recorded high economic growth and have become global economic engines. China is no exception and has become the new powerhouse in global economic development during the pre- and post-global subprime financial crisis and eurozone debt crisis.

Security, like peace, identity and other terminologies in that fold of international political theory has attracted many definitions. Unfortunately, many contributors approach these concepts from their own ideologies. Hence, broad areas of description of the term “security” exist.

When it emerged in 1964, the year that André Courrèges brought forth the miniskirt, with which the G-77 is coeval, both were declarations of independence, challenges to the established order and signs that, as Bob Dylan sang the same year, the times they were a-changing.

The embryonic beginnings of the United Nations were borne out of the desperation, fear, and sense of urgency as well as common purpose, cooperative spirit and optimism of the early stages of the Second World War.